H2O: The Foundational Biological Molecule

“Life is water, dancing to the tune of solids” -Albert Szent-Gyorgyi, Nobel Laureate 1937


Water is the cradle of life. Humans are 2/3 water by volume, and 99% water at the cellular level by molecular ratio. The molecular dance of life is suspended in water, but what are the characteristics of water that make it so essential to the animation of matter? You won’t find the answers in a biology textbook. Technological advancements in biology research have allowed distal parts of the cell to be examined independent of hydration. The role of water has been marginalized in cell biology because of the study of dehydrated proteins. Without physics, biology is just a series of disconnected facts. When the physics of water is taken into account, the bioenergetics of the cell becomes cohesive. My favorite theory on the basis of life is that it is a process by which matter acquires, processes, and directs energy in the most efficient way possible. A dead body has no ability to do any of these things. As it turns out, water is capable of all three tasks. This is why water is the centerpiece of all life phenomena.

The Search For Ordered Water

Scientists have long contemplated the idea that water within living systems has special physical characteristics, completely different from the water we observe in a glass. It is common knowledge that water has three phases and is essential for life, but what are the specific mechanisms by which water facilitates energy flux at a cellular level? How is the water in your cells different than “bulk” water?

Gilbert Ling, a Chinese biochemist and inspiration to many in the field of bioenergetics, was among the first scientists to provide a detailed hypothesis about the idea of “ordered” water in the cell that could acquire and process energy within it’s structural lattice. His “Association Induction Hypothesis” was a unifying molecular theory of life which states that life is a process by which high energetic potential is achieved by minimizing entropy by the electrical tension of associated molecules. In essence, energy, structure, and function are the pillars of life that center around the physical characteristics of an “ordered” type of water within the cell. (R)

Ling was highly scrutinized for the majority of the 20th century by traditional biochemists who subscribed to the theory that the enzymatic flux in cells are controlled by ion pumps and membrane potentials, blind to the fact that relying exclusively on proton gradients (Peter Mitchell, Nobel Prize 1978) broke the second law of thermodynamics by 500% (Ling et al) and couldn’t account for all of the energy required to power life. In the 1960s Ling postulated that this energy deficit could be accounted for by the physical characteristics of water.(R)

In 2013, Gerald Pollack found evidence of Gilbert Ling’s theory of structured water. Something in between a liquid and a solid, Pollack refers to this gel-like state as the fourth phase of water. A structured and electrically active form of water, it is likely that water in it’s fourth phase is what fills our tissues and makes us human.(R)

The Fourth Phase of Water

Pollack’s fourth phase can be observed in the interaction between water and a hydrophilic surface. Pollack and his lab partners observed a phenomenon known as the “exclusion zone”, where the water molecules would arrange themselves in hexagonal honeycomb sheets adjacent to a hydrophilic material. The “EZ” got its name because pollack and his colleagues noted that solutes were excluded from this structured region:


What makes EZ water unique compared to bulk water?

  • The exclusion zone has a negative charge. (Zheng et al)
  • The exclusion zone is more viscous (gel-like). (Zheng et al)
  • The exclusion zone is molecularly aligned. (Chai et al)
  • The exclusion zone absorbs 270nm ultra-violet light (The hexagonal rings are similar to the benzine rings observed in chromophores). (Yoo et al)
  • Exclusion zone molecules are more stable.(Chai et al)
  • The exclusion zone has different optical properties than bulk water (refractive index). (Zheng et al)

As this exclusion zone is being formed, the molecules of the water charge separate and the regions become polarized. The negative region of the EZ is made up of H3O2, and the positively charged region beyond the EZ is made up of hydronium ions that are made between the expelled H+ and H2O:


The exclusion zone is a highly ordered, crystalline lattice that is similar to the structure of ice, except the protons have been released and the sheets of hexagonal crystals are shifted so that they stay cohesive by electrostatic attraction but are not solid. In this way the EZ could be described as in between liquid and solid.



The discovery of this structured water is intriguing, but you need energy to create order. What is the energetic source that structures water?

How Water Acquires Energy: A Light Antenna

The exclusion zone grows by radiant energy. Light structures water.(R)

Pollack and his colleagues found that the frequencies in sunlight, specifically in the infrared range build the exclusion zone most impressively. Light absorption in water peaks at 3 micrometers into the infrared range. This makes water the most powerful red light chromophore in our bodies and on earth.


Once the exclusion zone is built, the hexagonal sheets work like benzine rings and absorb 270nm light specifically. This high energy UV radiation increases the charge separation.(R)

Also, recall Dr. Fritz Popp’s work from CIRCADIAN BIOLOGY I. Humans emit biophotons from our tissues. This can be felt in the form of infrared as body heat, or observed as ELF-UV light from our nucleic acids. This means humans are constantly structuring the water in our cellular architecture. This ordered water decreases entropy in the system and increases energy flows. Free energy is acquired in the form of incident radiance in the environment and captured in water to build order, energy, and function:


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How Water Directs Energy: The Water Battery

When the exclusion zone forms and the charged particles of water are polarized a battery is formed: (R1) (R2)

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Pollack and his colleagues showed that when you place an electrode in the exclusion zone and an electrode in the bulk water beyond, the current flow from the positively charged area to the negatively charged area is capable of powering a lightbulb. Just like in a Duracell battery, the charge separation in water is stable. The positive hydronium ions can’t invade the dense network of adjacent H3O2 molecules, so the charges remain separated and the battery persists.

This makes water fully capable of converting radiant light energy into mechanical work in all living systems. In this way, humans photosynthesize using the water in tissues and the radiant light of the environment.

Not only does the exclusion zone form a battery of charge separation, but the Italian theoretical physicist Emilio Del Giudice found that 13% of the exclusion zone forms something called the coherent domain that releases a redox pile of free electrons that can be put to biochemical work. (R)

Peter Mitchell, who I mentioned earlier, won a Nobel prize in 1978 for his work on proton gradients. He is famous for showing that proton gradients are ubiquitous in all three forms of life. Life uses proton gradients to build potential energy through electrostatic tension. Humans use this tension between protons and electrons on the inner mitochondrial membrane to form ATP. What Mitchell and his colleagues didn’t realize at the time, was that water helps augment this process by charge separating in the exclusion zone and forming massive amounts of positively charged molecules. These protons can then be put to physiologic work.

All this free energy comes from the interaction of light and water.

How Water Processes Energetic Information: The Water Computer

Fringe science has discussed so called “water memory” for a long time. The discussion centers around the theory that water somehow has the ability to process and store information about its environment. For decades the controversy over this subject has clouded the entire field of water science, stifling advancements in the field. Scientists simply didn’t want to publish data on the physics of water out of fear of being scrutinized and discredited.

Jaque Benveniste, a French immunologist, published literature on the mysterious memory of water and was highly scrutinized by the science journal Nature.(R) In his experiments, he showed that immune cells called basophils were activated by a solution of antibodies. Even when he diluted the antibody solution to a point where it no longer contained any biomolecules, the bosphils were activated. It’s as if the water in the solution had a “memory” of the antibodies and the basophils were able to access this information somehow.

Luc Montagnier, a French virologist who won the Nobel Prize for his work with HIV, claims that water can carry information via electromagnetic imprint from DNA and other molecules. Montagnier has shown that ELF-EMF waves cause structural changes in water that persist even in extremely high dilutions. He and his colleagues have a device that can detect such waves, which are strongest when they come from bacterial and viral genetic material. It is possible that all biomolecules emit these electromagnetic frequencies, and that this is an explanation for Benveniste’s antibody resonance in water.(R1)(R2)

Dr. Masaru Emoto, a Japanese researcher, author, and photographer claimed that human consciousness and emotional intent have an effect on the molecular structure of water. In his book, The Hidden Messages of Water he details experiments in which by producing different focused intentions through written and spoken words and literally presenting it to the same water samples, the water appears to “change its expression”.(R) Using a microscope and high speed photography to observe water in a cold environment, Emoto was able to capture the changes in crystalline structure of the water depending on the emotional environment it was exposed to. For example, water that was exposed to loving words and beautiful music showed brilliant, complex, and colorful snowflake patterns:


On the contrary, chemically polluted water or water exposed to negative words like “I hate you” produced dull, asymmetrical, interference patterns:


Of course, water can’t understand human body language or words, but it’s the vibrational frequencies humans emit when feeling these emotions that water can decipher. It’s been proven that the magnetic fields of the brain and the heart can be measured as far as 15 feet away(R) and that changes in emotional states can change the frequency of these waves (think EEG, used in hospitals everywhere)(R). It’s likely that Emoto’s water is simply reacting to these biophysical frequencies.

It’s not controversial that biomolecules oscillate at certain frequencies. However, the idea that water can record and store this information was highly questionable without a mechanism. However, with Pollack’s work comes an explanation:

When water is structured by electromagnetic energy in nature, it forms a liquid CRYSTALLINE alignment. There is good scientific evidence that crystals can store information.(R) It is well documented that crystals have the ability to store and re-emit photons, and it’s not controversial that photons can store information in fiber optic communications and wi-fi. The exclusion zone of water forms the perfect receptacle to absorb and re-emit information in the form of electromagnetic frequencies.

Better yet, the shifted pattern of hexagonal molecules in the exclusion zone can accommodate helical structures like our nucleic acids of DNA and RNA to receive these EM signals:


It’s quite possible that water works like a quantum supercomputer that transmits the electromagnetic data from biomolecules via molecular resonance phenomena.

Tensegrity (Tensional Integrity)

This new data on water offers a completely new framework for how the human body, and life in general, could operate. This framework centers around variations of Gilbert Ling’s Association Induction Hypothesis and the idea that water is the cohesive magnet around which the electromagnetic properties of matter are yoked. In this model, ordered water offers electrostatic tension and energetic potential from which the low-entropy structural integrity of life is born.

All water is interfacial in nature, meaning it’s not far from the surface of all the proteins and macromolecules in a cell. It’s probably that the microscopic and macroscopic cellular configurations of life self assembled from electrostatic tensions from associated exclusion zones. Water offers the tensional integrity of its associated charges to make the structures of life stable, energetically viable, and functional.

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The key to the tensegrity and structural integrity of the human body is the fascia, a sheet of connective tissue throughout the entire body made of primarily collagen and water. This hydrated protein works as a kind of supercomputer that is controlled by the quantum coherence of water. It is the fascia that gives us all our recognizable unique shape, not the bones or musculature. If everything but the fascia was stripped away from our body, we would still be recognizable to our friends.

We’re sending signals so fast in the body that it really can’t be explained by our standard mechanical model of nerve impulses controlled by chemical reactions that send neurotransmitters to and from the brain. We need to react to quickly for all this to happen. This is where the fascial system comes in. Within the electromagnetic resonance of water, these signals can be transferred and recorded throughout the body at the speed of light.(R)

In fact, traditional chinese medicine (TCM) and acupuncture are now being verified by water science in the fascial system, as it’s being discovered that acupuncture points are not a structure of their own but rather specialized channels of collagen. The water in these areas is activated by acupuncture needles and pressure on meridians.(R)

Myofascial releases have become popular in functional movement circles, where pressure and vibration are applied to specific areas of collagen to yield physiologic pain relief. It is believed that emotional trauma and memories can be stored in the fascial system, and that it’s possible to release this tension and restore energy flows. This is feasible, as thoughts and emotions are electromagnetic frequencies in the form of brain waves and water in the fascia has the ability to store this information in its crystalline lattice.(R)

Water acts as a semiconductor in fascia to animate matter via electromagnetic resonance.

The Heart is Not a Pump

It can’t be, it’s an absurd idea.

Here are some basic facts: If you spread the blood vessel system (arteries, capillaries, and veins) out on a planar surface, it would be about three times the surface area of a football field. Also, if you lined up all the vessels in a human body end to end they would circumvent the earth three times. In addition, blood is very viscous (sticky) and the various blood cells are about the same diameter as the smallest vessels.(R)

So, according to conventional wisdom, a one pound organ (on average) that is about the size of your fist is supposed to be able to PUSH this very viscous fluid three times around the earth. There is no 1 pound pump that can do this.

According to the work of Dr. Thomas Cowan, the function of the heart is actually closely tied to the biologic properties of water. In Cowan’s model, the specific geometry of the heart allows it to create a cross of  vortices (one horizontal and one vertical) in blood. Vortexes create structured water, modify water memory, and allow water to transmute biologic substrates like gold.



So if the heart doesn’t pump blood, what drives circulation?

The answer is structured water.

Blood vessels are made of hydrophilic proteins, which structure the water in blood and form an exclusion zone.


The negative ions propel the protons through the middle and drive perfusion. This motive force comes from the free energy of hydrophilic surfaces and electromagnetic energy (infrared) in tissues. Once the blood plasma is electrically structured, the zeta potential (negative charge) of red blood vessels builds and prevents them from clustering. The exclusion zone and proton motility are also how cells detoxify. These effects are how the vascular system works at a fundamental level.

Nerves Function with Structured Water

We have a central and peripheral system of nerves running throughout our bodies that allow us to feel and interact with our environment. Nerves are made up of a bundle of neurons (nerve cells) that transmit information through electrical and chemical signals via long slender projections known as axons that terminate in synapses. These axons are like electrical cables insulated in a fatty casing called myelin which acts as a rubber shield. Conventional wisdom states that electrical nerve impulses arrive unidirectionally  by ion gradients in minerals like calcium and magnesium and each consecutive neuron is depolarized to affect the next. However, this model is much too slow. Instead, we should realize that the axons are hydrophilic tubes that are well suited to structure the water in and around them. Structured water creates an electrical charge that can carry impulses over tremendous distances. As with circulation, structured water and the flow of electrons is the force behind nerve transmission.

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EZ and Vitality

Science has known for a long time that cells are negatively charged. 80-90 millivolts negative to be exact. Traditionally biologists believed this phenomenon was caused by the voltage of cellular membranes and ion channels in the cell. However, with Pollack’s research at hand it seems more likely to be caused by the volume of negatively charged EZ water. Conversely, sick or dying cells like cancer register at 10-15 millivolts negative.(R) This discrepancy suggests a smaller ratio of structured water. Additionally, sick cells have been shown to be less dense by magnetic levitation than healthy cells which suggests they have a smaller volume of the more dense and viscous “EZ” water.(R)

The exclusion zone is built by hydrophilic material and radiant energy in the infrared range. Hydrophilic materials are defined by the density of electrons on their surfaces. This suggests that sick cells aren’t getting enough electrons and infrared light, lowering their volume of EZ water. Much of the cytosolic water is created as a byproduct of mitochondrial respiration and electron chain transport. This metabolism makes heat (infrared light) and the density of electrons flowing along the inner mitochondrial membrane correspond the electronegative charge (which makes proteins hydrophilic). This is where the cancer connection comes in. Cancer, along with many other Neolithic diseases, has been shown to be a result of mitochondrial disruption.(R) When mitochondrial function slows, the infrared light and electronegative outputs of the cell drop and so does the volume of structured water.

In short, to increase vitality we want the highest possible volume of structured water in our body.

Here are some things that increase structured water: (via Pollack)

  • Infrared Light (Sun, Sauna, LLLT, Cuddling, Sex, Hugs – people and pets irradiate infrared that can be felt as body heat)
  • Grounding/Negative Charge (Bare feet on the ground increases electronegativity of all tissues)
  • Pressure (Massages, Hyperbaric Oxygen)

Here are some things that decrease structured water: (via Pollack)

  • Anesthesia (Interesting…)
  • Glyphosate
  • Heavy Metals
  • Flouride

This is why its important to connect with nature to build structured water via sunlight, grounding, and personal connection with other living beings. In modern times we’re heavily insulated from these factors and as a result the water in our tissues is less vital. Also be careful about the water you drink. Many pollutants destroy water’s ability to become structured. When we drink spring water directly from the source the water has had a chance to interact with the native geomagnetic forces of the earth and sun and is ALIVE with these frequencies.


Water is a simple magnetic dipole when observed in isolation, but in nature it comes alive and is electrified by the frequencies of living beings. Pollack’s fourth phase is central to the Association Induction Hypothesis and is the glue that makes biochemistry cohesive. Water is central to life’s ability to acquire, process, and direct energy, making it the ultimate device to animate matter.



Additional Citations:

Schwartz, AJ and Pollack, GH: Ice-melting dynamics: The role of protons and interfacial geometry. Langmuir DOI: 10.1021/acs.langmuir.7b00317, 2017.

Sharma, A, Toso, DT, Kung, K., Bahng, GW, Pollack GH: QELBY-induced Enhancement of Exclusion Zone Buildup and Seed Germination. Advances in Materials Science and Engineering. Article ID 2410794, https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/2410794, 2017.

S.A. Skopinov, SA, Bodrova MV, Jablon MPR, Pollack, GH, Blyakhman, FA “Exclusion zone” formation in mixtures of ethanol and water. Solution Chemistry, DOI 10.1007/s10953-017-0591-1, 2017.

Kundacina N, Shi M, Pollack GH: Effect of Local and General Anesthetics on Interfacial Water, PLOS, 2016. PLoS ONE 11(4): e0152127. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0152127.

Burgo, T, Galembeck, F, Pollack, GH: Where is water on the triboelectric series? J. Electrostatics, 30-33,2016 doi: 0.1016/ j.elstat.2016.01.002.

Kimura, K. and Pollack, GH: Particle displacement in aqueous suspension arising from incident radiant energy. Langmuir, 2015, 31 (38), pp 10370–10376 DOI: 10.1021/la5048535.

Ypma, R and Pollack, GH: Effect of hyperbaric oxygen conditions on the ordering of interfacial water. Undersea and Hyperbaric Medicine 42(3): 257-264, 2015.

Kung, K and Pollack GH: Effect of Atmospheric Ions on Interfacial Water. Entropy 2014, 16, 6033-6041; doi:10.3390/e16116033.

Pollack, GH: Cell electrical properties: reconsidering the origin of the electrical potential. 2014 Cell Biology International ISSN 1065-6995 doi: 10.1002/cbin.10382.

Sulbaran, B,Toriz, G, Allan, GG, Pollack, GH and Delgado E: The dynamic development of exclusion zones on cellulosic surfaces. Cellulose 2014 DOI 10.1007/s10570-014-0165-y.

Po Yoo, H., Nagornyak, E, Das, R., Wexler, AD, Pollack, GH: Contraction-induced changes of muscle hydration water. 2014: J. Phys. Chem. Letters. dx.doi.org/10.1021/jz5000879 | J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 2014, 5, 947−952.

Rohani M and Pollack GH: Flow through horizontal tubes submerged in water in the absence of a pressure gradient: Mechanistic considerations. Langmuir 2013 29(22):6556-61. doi: 10.1021/la4001945.

Yu, A, Carlson P, and Pollack GH: Unexpected axial flow through hydrophilic tubes: Implication for energetics of water. Eur. Physical J. Special Topics 2013 DOI 10.1140/epjst/e2013-01837-8.

Das R and Pollack GH: Charge-based forces at the Nafion-water interface. Langmuir 29(8):2651-8 (2013) PMID 23311934.

Chai B, Mahtani AG and Pollack GH: Influence of electrical connection between metal electrodes on contiguous solute-free zones. Contemporary Materials IV-I – 1-8, 2013.

Pollack, GH: Comment on “A Theory of Macromolecular Chemotaxis” and “Phenomena Associated with Gel–Water Interfaces. Analyses and Alternatives to the Long-Range Ordered Water Hypothesis”http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/jp312686x, 2013.

Chai B, Mahtani AG and Pollack GH: Unexpected Presence of Solute-Free Zones at Metal-Water Interfaces. Contemporary Materials, III-I, 1-12, 2012.

Musumeci F and Pollack GH: Influence of water on the work function of certain metals. Chem Phys Lett. 536: 65-67. 2012.

So E, Stahlberg R, and Pollack GH: Exclusion zone as an intermediate between ice and water. in: Water and Society, ed. DW Pepper and CA Brebbia, WIT Press, pp 3-11, 2012.

Trevors, JT and Pollack GH Origin of microbial life hypothesis: A gel cytoplasm lacking a bilayer membrane with infrared radiation producing exclusion zone (EZ) water, hydrogen as an energy source and thermosynthesis for bioenergetics. Biochimie, Volume 94 (1), 258 – 262, 2012.

Ienna, F, Yoo, H. and Pollack GH: Spatially Resolved Evaporative Patterns from Water Soft Matter, 8 (47), 11850 – 11856, 2012.

O’Rourke, C, Klyuzhin, IS, Park, JS and Pollack, GH: Unexpected water flow through Nafion-tube punctures. Phys. Rev. E. 83(5) DOI:10.1103/PhysRevE.83.056305, 2011.

Figueroa, X and Pollack, GH, Exclusion-Zone Formation From Discontinuous Nafion Surfaces. In press, Design and Nature, 2011.

Shklyar, TF, Toropova, OA, Safronov, AP, Pollack, GH and Blyakhman, FA: Mechanical Characteristics of Synthetic Polyelectrolyte Gel as a Physical Model of the Cytoskeleton. Biophysics, 56(1) 68-73, 2011.

Nhan, DT and Pollack, GH: Effect of particle diameter on exclusion-zone size. In press Int’l J Design Nature, 2011.

Bhalerao, A and Pollack, GH: Light-induced effects on Brownian displacements. J Biophotnics 4(3) 172-177, 2011.

Safronov, AP, Shakhnovich, M, Kalganov, A, Kamalov, IA, Shklyar, TF, Blyakhman, FA and Pollack, GH: DC electric fields produce periodic bending of polyelectrolyte gels. Polymer 52: 2430-2436, 2011.

Pollack, GH, Figueroa, X, Zhao, Q: The Minimal Cell and Life’s Origin: Role of Water and Aqueous Interfaces. In: P.L. Luisi and P. Stano (eds.), The Minimal Cell: The Biophysics of Cell Compartment and the Origin of Cell Functionality, DOI 10.1007/978-90-481-9944-0_7, Springer, 2011.

Yoo, H, Paranji, R and Pollack, GH: Impact of hydrophilic surfaces on interfacial water dynamics probed with NMR spectroscopy. J. Phys. Chem Letters 2: 532- 536, 2011.

Yoo, H, Baker, DR, Pirie, CM, Hovakeemian, B and Pollack GH: Characteristics of water adjacent to hydrophilic interfaces. IN: Water: the Forgotten Molecule, ed. Denis LeBihan and Hidenao Fukuyama, Pan Stanford, pp 123 -136, 2011.

Klyuzhin, IS, Ienna, F, Roeder B, Wexler, A and Pollack GH: Persisting Water Droplets on Water Surfaces. J. Phys Chem B 114:14020-14027, 2010.

Shklyar, TF, Safronov,AP, Toropova, OA, Pollack GH and Blyakhman, FA: Mechanoelectric Potentials in Synthetic Hydrogels: Possible Relation to Cytoskeleton. Biophysics, Vol. 55, No. 6, pp. 931–936, 2010.

Pollack, GH: Scientific orthodoxies: Moving challenge toward revolution. In: Proc First Int’l CHESS Conf. ed: C Rangacharyulu and E Haven, World Sci. pp. 297-305, 2010.

Zhao Q, Coult J and Pollack GH: Long-range attraction in aqueous colloidal suspension. Proc SPIE 7376: 73716C1-C13, 2010.

Pollack, GH: Water, Energy and Life: Fresh Views from the Water’s Edge. Int’l J. Design & Nature, 5(1): 27-29, 2010.

Chai, B, Pollack GH: Solute-free Interfacial Zones in Polar Liquids. J Phys. Chem B 114: 5371-5375, 2010.

Chai, B, Yoo, H. and Pollack, GH: Effect of Radiant Energy on Near-Surface Water. J. Phys. Chem B 113: 13953-13958, 2009.

Nagornyak, E, Yoo, H and Pollack, GH: Mechanism of attraction between like-charged particles in queous solution. Soft Matter, 5, 3850 – 3857, 2009.

Zhao, Q, Ovchinnikova, K, Chai, B., Yoo, H, Magula, J and Pollack, GH. Role of proton gradients in the echanism of osmosis. J. Phys Chem B 113: 10708-10714, 2009.

Safronov, AP, Blyakhman F.A., Shklyar T.F.. Terziyan T.V., Kostareva M.A.,Tchikunov S.A., Pollack G.H. The influence of counterion type and temperature on Flory-Haggins binary interaction parameter, its enthalpy and entropy parts in poly(acrylic acid) and poly(methacrylic acid) hydrogels polyelectrolyte J. Macromol Chem Phys, 210(7), 511-519. 2009.

Pollack, GH, Figueroa, X and Zhao, Q: Molecules, Water, and Radiant Energy: New Clues for the Origin of Life. Int’l J. Mol Sci 10: 1419 – 1429, 2009.

Ovchinnikova, K, Pollack GH: Cylindrical phase separation in colloidal suspensions. Phys. Rev. E 79 (3)036117 2009.

Zheng, J.-M., Wexler, A, Pollack, GH: Effect of buffers on aqueous solute-exclusion zones around ion exchange resins. J. Colloid Interface Sci. 332: 511-514, 2009.

Pollack, GH: Water and Surfaces: A Linkage Unexpectedly Profound. In: Hydrogels: Biological Properties and Applications. Springer-Verlat, Milan, 2009, Ed: R. Barbucci, pp 145 – 147.

Shklyar, TF, Safronov, A, Klyuzhin, IS, Pollack, GH and Blyakhman, FA: Relationship between mechanical and electrical properties of a synthetic hydrogel chosen as experimental model of the cytoskeleton. Biofizika, 53(6): 1000-1007, 2008.

Ovchinnikova, K and Pollack, GH: Can water store charge? Langmuir, 25: 542-547, 2009.

Klyuzhin, I, Symonds, A, Magula, J and Pollack, GH: A new method of water purification based on the particle exclusion phenomenon. Environ. Sci and Techn, 42(16) 6160-6166, 2008.

Wang, C, Nagornyak, E, Das, R and Pollack GH: Automatic step detection algorithm for analysis of sarcomere dynamics. Comput Methods Biomech Biomed Engin 11(6):609-614, 2008.

Pollack, GH and Clegg, J: Unsuspected Linkage Between Unstirred Layers, Exclusion Zones, and Water. In: Pollack, G.H. and Chin, W.-C. Phase Transitions in Cell Biology, Springer, pp 143 – 152, 2008.

Chai, B, Zheng, JM, Zhao, Q, and Pollack, GH: Spectroscopic studies of solutes in aqueous solution. J. Phys. Chem.,A 112 2242-2247, 2008.

Zhao, Q, Zheng, JM, Chai, B., and Pollack, GH: Unexpected effect of light on colloid crystal Spacing. Langmuir, 24: 1750-1755, 2008.

Klimov, A and Pollack, GH: Visualization of charge-carrier propagation in water. Langmuir 23(23): 11890-11895, 2007.

Pollack, G. H. Cells, Gels and Mechanics. In: Models of Cytoskeletal Mechanics, ed. M. Kaazempur-Mofrad and R. D. Kamm. Cambridge University Press., 2006, pp 129 – 151.

Hao, Y., , Miller, M. S., Swank, D. M., Liu, H., Bernstein, S. I., Maughan, D. L., and Pollack, G. H. Passive stiffness in Drosophila indirect flight muscle reduced by disrupting paramyosin phosphorylation but not by embryonic myosin S2 hinge substitution. Biophys. J. 91: 4500-4506, 2006.

Zheng, J.-M., Chin, W. –C, Khijniak, E., Khijniak, E., Jr., Pollack, G. H. Surfaces and Interfacial Water: Evidence that hydrophilic surfaces have long-range impact. Adv. Colloid Interface Sci. 127: 19-27, 2006.

Safronov, A. P., Shklyar, T. F., Borodin, V. S., Smirnova, Ye A., Sokolov, S. Yu., Pollack, G. H. and Blyakhman, F. A. Donnan potential in hydrogels of poly(methacrylic acid) and its potassium salt. in Water and the Cell, ed. GH Pollack, IL Cameron, and DN Wheatley, Springer, 2006, pp 273 – 284.

Zheng, J.-M. and Pollack, G. H. Solute Exclusion and potential distribution near hydrophilic surfaces. In: Water and the Cell, ed. GH Pollack, IL Cameron, and DN Wheatley, Springer, 2006, pp. 165 – 174.

Nagornyak, E. M, and Pollack, G. H. Connecting filament mechanics in the relaxed sarcomere. J. Mus Res Cell Motil 26: 303-306, 2005.

Nagornyak, E. M., Blyakhman, F. A. and Pollack, G. H. Stepwise length changes in single invertebrate thick filaments. Biophys J. 89: 3269-3276, 2005.

Pollack, G. H. Revitalizing science in a risk-averse culture: Reflections on the syndrome and prescriptions for its cure. Cellular and Mol. Biol. 51: 815-820, 2005.

Pollack, G. H.: Cells, Gels and Electrochemistry. In Nanoscale Devices, Materials, and Biological Systems, Electrochemical Society, pp. 495-508, Editors: M. Cahay, M. Urquidi-Macdonald, S. Bandyopadhyay, P. Guo, H. Hasegawa, N. Koshida, J.P. Leburton, D.J. Lockwood, S. Seal, and A. Stella, 2005.

Pollack, G. H., Blyakhman, F. A., Liu, X., Nagornyak, E.: Sarcomere dynamics, stepwise shortening, and the nature of contraction. In: Sliding Filament Mechanism after 50 Years, ed. H. Sugi., Plenum, 113-126, 2005.

Trevors, J. T. and Pollack, G. H.: The origin of life in a hydrogel environment. Prog. Biophys. Mol. Biol. 89 (1) 1-8, 2005.

Pollack, G.H.: Cells and Gels: Implications for Mechanics. SPIE 5852 . Exp. Mechanics. Ed. C. Quan et al., 10-13, 2005.

Nagornyak, E. M., Blyakhman F. A. and Pollack, G. H.: Step size in activated rabbit sarcomeres is independent of filament overlap. J. Mechanics in Med. And Biol 4(4) 1-14, 2004.

Zubarev, A. Yu. Blyakhman, F. A., Pollack, G. H., Gusev, P. and Safronov, A. P. Self-similar wave of swelling/collapse phase transition along polyelectrolyte gel. Macromo. Theory Simul. 13: 697-701, 2004.

Hao, Y. Bernstein, S. I. And Pollack, G. H. Passive stiffness of Drosophilia IFM myofibrils: a novel high accuracy measurement method. J. Mus Rs Cell Motil 25 359-366, 2004.

Safronov, A. P. Smirnova, Y. A., Pollack, G. H. and Blyakhman, F. A. Enthalpy of Swelling of Potassium Poly(acrylate) and Poly(methacrylate) Hydrogels.Evaluation of Excluded-Volume Interaction. Macromol. Chem Phys 205: 1431-1438, 2004.

Nagornyak, E., Blyakhman, F. and Pollack, G.H.: Effect of sarcomere length on step size in relaxed psoas muscle. J. Mus. Res. Cell Motil. 25: 37-43, 2004.

Liu, X. and Pollack, G. H.: Stepwise sliding of single actin and myosin filaments. Biophys. J. 86: 353-358, 2004.

Reitz, F.B. and Pollack, G.H.: Labview virtual instruments for calcium buffer calculations. Comput. Meth. Progr. Biomed: 70(1): 61-69, 2003.

Zheng, J.M. and Pollack, G. H.: Long range forces extending from polymer surfaces. Phys Rev E.: 68: 031408, 2003.

Pollack, G. H., Liu, X., Yakovenko, O. and Blyahhman, F. A.. Translation step size measured in single sarcomeres and single filament pairs. In: “Molecular and Cellular Aspects of Muscle Contraction. Ed. H. Sugi. Kluwer/Plenum 2003, pp 129-142.

Rassier, D.E., Herzog, W., Pollack, G.H.: Dynamics of individual sarcomeres during and after stretch in activated myofibrils. Proc. Royal Soc. (Lond) 270: 1735-1740, 2003.

Pollack, G.H.: Sub-cellular basis of biological motion. Biological Membranes 20(1): 5-15, 2003.

Sokolov, S., Grinko, A., Tourovskaia, A., Reitz, F., Yakovenko, O., Pollack, GH and Blyakhman, F. “Minimum average risk” as a new peak detection algorithm applied to myofibrillar dynamics. Comput. Meth and Prog. in Biomed. 72(1): 21-26, 2003.

Pollack, GH: The role of aqueous interfaces in the cell. Inivited review. Adv. Colloid and Interface Sci.103/2: 173 – 196, 2003.

Gao, F., Reitz, F. and Pollack GH: Potentials in anionic polyelectrolyte hydrogels, J. Appl. Polymer Sci. 89(5)1319-1321, 2003.

Liu, X and Pollack GH: Mechanics of F-actin Characterized using Nanofabricated Cantilevers. Biophys. J.83: 2705-2715, 2002.

Pollack, GH: The Cell as a Biomaterial. Invited Review. J. Mat. Sci: Mat. In Medicine 13: 811-821, 2002.

Yakovenko, O., Blyakhman, F. and Pollack, G. H. Fundamental step size in single cardiac and skeletal sarcomeres. Am J. Physiol (Cell) 283(9): C735-C743, 2002.

Dunaway, D.,, Fauver, M. and Pollack, GH: Direct measurement of single synthetic vertebrate thick filament elasticity using nanofabricated cantilevers. Biophys. J. 82(6)L 3128-3133, 2002.

Reitz, F., Fauver, M,. and Pollack, GH: Fluorescence anisotyropy near-field scanning optical microscopy (FANSOM): a new technique for nanoscale microviscometry. Ultramicroscopy, 90: 259-264, 2002.

Pollack, GH amd Reitz, F. Micro-and nano-scale motion in the cell. in: Int’l iMEMS Wkshp., ed. F. Tay Eng Hock, pp. 114, 2001.

Pollack, GH: Is the cell a gel—and why does it matter? Invited review, Japanese Journal of Physiology. 51(6):649-60, 2001.

Blyakhman, T., Tourovskaya, A., and Pollack, G. H.: Quantal sarcomere length changes in relaxed single myofibrils. Biophys J 81:1093-1100, 2001.

Pollack, G. H. and Reitz, F. B.: Phase Transitions and Molecular Motion in the Cell. In Cell Water, ed. P. Mentre. Cellular and Molecular Biol. 47(5): 885-900, 2001.

Pollack, G. H.: MEMS and the cell: How nature creates microscale motion. In: Smart Sensors and Devices, eds. D. Sood, R Lawes and V. Varadan, SPIE Vol. 4235, pp. 21-40, 2001.

Pollack, G. H.: Muscle contraction and polymer gel phase transitions. In Electroactive Polymer Actuators and Devices, Ed. Y. Bar-Cohen, SPIE 3987, pp. 232-242, 2000.

Blyakhman, F., Tourovskaya, A. and Pollack G. H.: Intact connecting filaments change length in 2.3-nm quanta. pp 305-318 In: Elastic Filaments of the Cell. Ed: H. Granzier and G. H. Pollack, Kluwer, 2000.




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